**Ampere:** A unit of measurement for electrical current.

**Ampere Hour (Ah):**
The quantity of electrical energy corresponding to the flow of current
of one ampere for one hour. This term is used to signify the energy
stored in the battery.

**Battery Capacity:**
The total number of ampere hours (Ah) that a fully charged battery can output.

**Cycle:**
One sequence of charge and discharge.

**Discharging:**
When a battery is delivering a current.

**Over Charge:**
The process of continued charge of cell / battery after the point of 100% charge capacity.

**Over Discharge:**
The process of discharging a cell / battery beyond its cut off voltage.

**Volt:** A unit of measurement of electrical energy within an electrical circuit.

Most Lithium batteries come as 12, 14.4, 18, 20, 24, 36, 48, 52, 58, or 72 volt , with each cell as 3.7 volts.

**State of Charge (SOC)(%):** An expression of the present battery capacity as a

percentage of maximum capacity. SOC is generally calculated using current integration to

determine the change in battery capacity over time.

**Depth of Discharge (DOD) %: **This expresses the percentage of battery capacity that has been discharged expressed as a percentage of maximum capacity. A discharge to at least 80 % DOD is referred to as a deep discharge.

**BMS: **Battery Management System, is an electronic system designed to
__monitor and manage battery performance__, protecting it from damage and
optimizing its lifespan.

**Cell: **A cell is the basic building block of a battery, consisting of an anode,
a cathode, and an electrolyte. The voltage of a cell in an __18650 Lithium Ion battery is 3.7 volts__, whereas the voltage of a LiFePO4 cell is a nominal
3.2 volts.** **

**Closed Circuit Voltage Test : **Closed Circuit Voltage Test is a method for __testing battery__ performance
by measuring voltage __while__ the battery is __connected to a load and
discharging__.

**Watt Hours: **This is usually stated on the battery itself. If not, you can calculate it as __Volts x amp hours (Ah)____.__

**example 1: an 18 volt 5000 mAh battery**– first divide the mAh rating by 1,000 to get the Ah rating –*5000/1,000 –*. You can now calculate as –**5.0ah***5Ah x 18 volts = 90Wh***example 2: a 36 volt 17.0Ah battery**–*17Ah x 36 volts = 612Wh*

**Memory effect: **This commonly associated with __Nickel-Cadmium batteries__, is a
phenomenon where a battery appears to “remember” previous partial
discharge levels, causing reduced capacity over time.

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